Thyroid gland and thyroid hormone functions

Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland that is located in front of the neck below the Adam’s apple. Thyroid  gland has 2 lobs and it is about 2 inches long. Thyroid gland is a vital gland for your body. Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland and regulates metabolism by thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Thyroid gland regulates body’s energy production and usage. Thyroid hormones regulates so many body functions like;

thyroid gland

Thyroid hormones regulates metabolic rate

One of the important functions of thyroid hormones is regulating basal metabolic rate and energy production. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of expended energy during the rest. By this way body regulates its temperature. Body regulates the temperature by producing energy by using oxygen.

Thyroid hormones and blood fats ( blood lipids)

If your body secretes too much thyroid hormone, body burns blood fats more than normal and their level decreases. If thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones less than normal this is called hypothyroidism. In hypothyroidism condition body can’t burn fats enough and cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels increase. Thyroid hormone blood tests should be done if your blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels are too high. Diabetes is an another disease that may increase body fat levels.

Thyroid hormones, energy production and carbohydrate metabolism

Thyroid hormones have an important role in burning and producing energy from carbohydrates like sugar, starch or bread. Thyroid hormones help the insulin hormone to enter the cells with sugar. Also thyroid hormones increase glucose release from liver when blood sugar level is low.

Thyroid hormones growth, fertility

Healthy growth of a child depends on adequate level of thyroid hormones in blood. Low thyroid hormones level cause growth retardation and dwarfism. Thyroid hormone insufficiency ( hypothyrodism) may cause miscarriage, infertility and irregular menstrual cycle.

Thyroid hormones and brain development during pregnancy

Healthy brain development of baby depends on the thyroid hormones which are transported by umbilical cord from mother. If mother’s thyroid hormones level are low, baby can’t take enough thyroid hormone, baby’s brain can’t develop healthy. Hypothyroidism of mother may cause mental retardation in baby.

Thyroid hormones and bone development

Thyroid hormones affect bone development and bone mass during childhood. Hypothyroidism may cause stunted growth in children.

Thyroid hormones blood pressure, heart rate

Insufficient thyroid hormone reduce heart rate, increases blood fat level and cause arterial hardening and narrowing. Hyperthyroidism ( high thyroid hormone level) may cause increased heart rate, abnormal heart rhythms and high blood pressure.


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