Diabetes surgery also called ileal interposition surgery is done to treat type 2 diabetes patients. These patients use their diabetes medication or insulin but they can’t take their blood sugar level under control. Diabetes surgery is the most effective method for these kind of patients who can’t solve their diabetes problem with medicines. Also patients can leave hypertension or cholesterol medicine usage with this method too.
Diabetes surgery (ileal interposition surgery) is a kind of gastrointestinal system surgery which is used to regulate metabolism so it can be called as metabolic surgery too. In diabetes surgery, small intestine’s starting and end parts are rearranged and replaced with each other. Main aim of this procedure is to increase GLP-1 hormone secretion from small intestine which is a kind of hormone that increases insulin effect and stimulates pancreas for insulin production. The last part of the small intestine is ileum and replacing this part with surgery is called interposition so diabetes surgery method is called ileal interposition surgery.
Hormones in diabetes surgery
Diabetes surgery also makes some changes in stomach. Ghrelin is a kind of hormone which increases appetite and makes you feel hungry. Ghrelin hormone is produced by upper part of stomach that is called fundus. In diabetes surgery fundus is removed to reduce ghrelin production. This procedure is sleeve gastrectomy and it is a part of diabetes ( metabolic) surgery.
Incretins are kind of hormones that are produced by small intestines (ileum) and increase insulin secretion. There are two main kind of incretin hormones ; GIP (glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide) and GLP-1 ( glucagon-like peptide-1). With ileal interposition method, foods can reach these hormones rapidly. Glucose presence in intestines stimulates incretin production, this produced incretin reaches to pancreatic beta cells and stimulates them to produce more insulin.
Anti-incretins are hormones that are produced in duedonum ( first part of small intestines) and they increase blood sugar level in body. In diabetes surgery, this part of intestine ( duedonum) is bypassed and does not meet with food and anti-incretin production can be reduced.