Staging is done to see development of the prostate cancer and to choose the treatment options according to this. Some screening tests must be done for prostate cancer staging like;
Transrectal ultrasound ( prostate sonogram, endorectal ultrasound)
It is also called TRUS; a probe is placed into the rectum to determine the size of the prostate gland. Ultrasound probe is a device that is big as a finger and it sends waves through the rectum wall and prostate tissue. Doctor evalutes the collected images on the computer screen. TRUS is also used during the prostate biopsy.
Bone scintigraphy (bone scan)
Bone scan is used to determine if the prostate cancer is spreaded to the bones. Bone scan measures the radiation level in the bones. If the prostate cancer is spreaded (metastasized) to bones, the measured radiation level will be increased. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected in to the vein. This radioactive substance circulates all over the body. Scanning is done a few hours after the injection.
Computed tomography (CT scan)
CT scan is an another test that is done to determine the cancer metastazis. CT is a good way to detect organ metastazis. CT scanning process takes a few minutes, you should not move during the test to prevent blurred images.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to determine soft tissue metastazis. MRI provides detailed soft tissue and anatomic detail images.
Prostate cancer stages
Prostate cancer staging is done by these tests, treatment method is determined according to the results. You can see the stages of prostate cancer as listed;
Prostat cancer is small, can’t be recognized by finger examination. Cancer may be determined incidentally, it is located inside of the prostate gland.
Cancer is progressed more but still localized in the prostate gland and have not spread (metastasized) to other organs.
Cancer is extended through the membrane of the prostate gland, it may be spreaded to seminal vesicles but not to the lymph nodes.
This is the advanced stage of the prostate cancer. Cancer is spreaded to nearby lymph nodes and organs. Also it may be spreaded to rectum, bladder, bones, lungs and other organs.