Complete blood count CBC ( hemogram ) can be done to see your current health condition alos can be used to diagnose to lots of diseases like; anemia, infections, etc.
Some many tests and parameters can be measured at the same time with complete blood count. Some of these are;
White blood cells ( WBC ): Defending to infections
Red blood cells ( RBC ): Oxygen carrying erythrocytes
Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin level that carrying oxygen in RBC
Hematocrit: Ratio of blood cells to fluid part of blood
Platelets: Helps blood clotting
Complete blood count is one of the most common laboratory tests that you may have after a medical examination.
Purposes of Complete Blood Count
- Routine check up: To evaluate your current health condition and to monitor your health problems for early diagnosis.
- Diagnose a medical problem: If you have symptoms like; fever, weakness, tiredness, fatigue, bruising, bleeding, inflammation CBC ( hemogram ) helps diagnosing.
- Monitor an ilness: If you have a diagnosed health problem that affects your blood cells, CBC/ hemogram can help monitoring the disease.
- Monitor your problem’s treatment: You may use different kinds of medicines that can affect your blood, your doctor recommends hemogram (CBC) periodical to monitor your blood cells.
Complete blood count/ hemogram is a simple and quick laboratory test that can be done in every time of the day. Only a little tube of blood is enough for monitoring lots of parameters ( almost 20 ) about your blood cells. You don’t need any patient preparation period to have hemogram test. Fasting is not necessary if you will not have any additional blood tests. Your health care specialist will insert a needle into your vein and take a little tube of blood; this is very short process and you may have only a little pain during blood collection.
Complete blood count/ hemogram normal values:
These normal values may have some little differences with the laboratory that your test made, where the blood has taken from; artery or vein, the method of testing or the analyzer that used.
The CBC hemogram values also may change with gender, age and high altitude. Pregnancy also changes the values and your doctor will evaluate the complete blood count values for every stage of your pregnancy month by month.
Parameters of Complete Blood Count/ Hemogram
White Blood Cells ( WBC )/ Leukocytes
Common name of white blood cells is lekocytes, there are different kinds of leukocytes these are neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils.
WBC normal value in blood is between 5000/mm3 and 10000/mm3. These numbers are consist of ;
% 50-62 Neutrophils
% 25-40 Lymphocytes
% 3-7 Monocytes
% 0-3 Eosinophils
% 0-1 Basophils
Red Blood Cells (RBC)/ Erythrocytes
Red Cells of blood are called Erythrocytes. Eriythrocytes numbers are different in men, women, children and newborn. As we see gender and the age affect to hemogram results directly. Normal values of RBC erythrocytes;
Men: 4,5-5,5 million/µlt
Women: 4-5 million/ µlt
Children: 3,8-6 million/ µlt
Newborn: 4,1-6,1 million/ µlt
The volume percentage of red blood cells in blood is hematocrit. This volume depends on the number and size of the red blood cells. Hematocrit values also changes with the age and gender like this;
Men: % 39-52
Women: % 35-45
Newborn: % 54-67
Infant (baby) hematocrit values
Infant one week old: % 46-66
Infant one month old: % 37-49
Infant 3 months old: % 30-37
One year old child: % 28-40
10 years old child: % 35-40
Hemoglobin is a kind of protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells and gives red color to the blood. Normal values;
Men: 14-17,5 gr/dl
Women: 12-16 gr/dl
Child: 9,5-20 gr/dl
Newborn: 14-24 gr/dl
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Means mean cell volume at the same time. This is average volume of red blood cells sample. Mcv is used in finding causes of anemia. Normal values for adults:
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
Hemoglobin amount for per blood cell value is called mean corpuscular hemoglobin/ MCH. Normal values of MCH for adults:
27-33 picogram (pg)/ cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
MCHC is concentraiton of hemoglobin in a given amount of packed red blood cells. Normal value of MCHC for adults:
32-36 gr/ dl
Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
RDW is measurement of variation in red blood cell size and volume. Normal RDW value ; % 10-16 for adults.
PLT is the symbol of platelets also called thrombocytes. When a wound occurs to your body platelets prevent bleeding by helping blood clotting. Platelets forms blood clots and works a plug on the bleeding area. Normal values cganges for adults and children:
Children: 150.000-450.000/ mm3
Adults: 140.000-400.000/ mm3
Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
MPV test measures the average size of the platelets. Higher values mean your platelets are larger lower values means they are smaller. Both values may be risky; larger platelets have a role for heart attack and small platelets may cause bleeding disorders. Normal values for MPV is ; 7,5-11,5 femtoliters.
As we see Complete Blood Count/ hemogram is an easy and quick laboratory test but it has lots of different parameters. With calculating and evaluating these parameters your doctor would have an idea about your illness. You will only need to give a tube of blood but with hemogram test your doctor will have so many parameters to evaluate as if you had lots of blood tests.